Bowdoin College Catalogue and Academic Handbook

Africana Studies (AFRS)

AFRS 1005  (b, FYS)   Women of Color in Politics  

Chryl Laird.
Non-Standard Rotation. Fall 2019. Enrollment limit: 16.
  

Explores the significant roles that women of color have played in American politics and around the world. Begins with the US context, starting in the antebellum era and moving forward by reading biographies/autobiographies that provide voice to the experiences faced by women of color in both traditional and non-traditional political spaces. These include women of color as close confidants to male political figures (first ladies, wives, and mistresses) and as politicians, judges, activists, and revolutionaries. Then shifts to a more global context considering the perspectives of women of color in countries where they have championed gender equality and feminism, and where they have become powerful political actors. (Same as: GOV 1005)

Previous terms offered: Fall 2018, Fall 2017.

AFRS 1010  (b, FYS)   Deconstructing Racism  

Fall 2019.  

Examines the social, political, and historical evolution of racism as a system and the challenges to studying and eradicating racism in contemporary American society. Investigates the construction of race, the various logics used to justify racial thinking, and the visible and invisible forces that perpetuate racial stratification and inequality in American life. Understands the various political and social debates that complicate and undermine how racism is defined and identified. Explores its impact on individuals, institutions, and cultures in the United States, and the various formal and subversive strategies deployed by individuals and collectives for challenging and combatting it. Emphasis on developing a language for discussing, debating, and writing about race and racism sociologically for public and academic audiences. (Same as: SOC 1010)

Previous terms offered: Fall 2017, Fall 2016, Fall 2015.

AFRS 1012  (c, FYS)   Affirmative Action and United States History  

Every Fall. Enrollment limit: 16.  

Interdisciplinary exploration of the rise and fall (and reappearance) of the affirmative action debate that shaped so much of the American culture wars during the 1970s and 2000s. Students primarily study affirmative action in the United States, but comparative analysis of affirmative action systems in societies outside the United States, such as South Africa and India, is also considered. Examines important Supreme Court cases that have shaped the contours of affirmative action, the rise of diversity discourse, and the different ways political and cultural ideologies -- not to mention historical notions of American identity -- have determined when, where, and how affirmative action has existed and whom it benefits. Study of law, economics, sociology, anthropology, history, and political science introduces students to different methodological approaches that inform Africana studies and the field’s examination of the role people of African descent have played in contemporary and historical American society. Writing intensive. Analytical discussions of assigned texts.

Previous terms offered: Fall 2016, Fall 2015.

AFRS 1026  (c, FYS)   Fictions of Freedom  

Tess Chakkalakal.
Non-Standard Rotation. Fall 2019. Enrollment limit: 16.
  

Explores the ways in which the idea of American freedom has been defined both with and against slavery through readings of legal and literary texts. Students come to terms with the intersections between the political, literary, and historical concept of freedom and its relation to competing definitions of American citizenship. (Same as: ENGL 1026)

Previous terms offered: Fall 2015.

AFRS 1029  (b, FYS)   Buried Treasure, Hidden Curse? Politics of Natural Resource Extraction in Africa  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 16.  

Oil, diamonds, gold. . . riches in the midst of poverty. How can Africa boast so many natural resources and yet remain the poorest continent on earth? What is the “resource curse?” Begins by putting Africa in the context of global resource extraction, oil in particular. Establishes Africa’s long pre-colonial experience with trade in iron, gold, salt, and slaves. The colonial period deepened the reliance of many territories on specific resources, a pattern that continues to the present. Uses Burkina Faso as a specific example of gold extraction, contrasting industrial and artisanal mining. Modern streams of prospectors throughout West Africa echo the California gold rush, but with important distinctions. An introduction to political science, the interplay between national and foreign governments, international and domestic firms, and local and migrant prospectors as they vie for access to valuable resources are highlighted. (Same as: GOV 1029)

Previous terms offered: Fall 2018, Fall 2017.

AFRS 1041  (c, FYS)   Congo in Word and Image  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 16.  

Introduces Congo as part of a global discussion about humanity through text, film, music, and art. Studies novels that condemned colonial and post-colonial exploitation of Congolese resources, appreciates staggering Congo art that inspired European artists, and analyzes Congo politics that produced liberators and dictators. Considers ongoing humanitarian interventions in Congo against child soldiering, genocide, and rape. By placing words and images developed by outsiders alongside those of Congolese peoples, explores both the Congo and how the Congo has been conjured as a subject of a global imagination. Note: This course is part of the following field(s) of study: Africa. It fulfills the non Euro/US requirements for history majors and minors. (Same as: HIST 1041)

Previous terms offered: Fall 2015.

AFRS 1101  (c, ESD)   Introduction to Africana Studies  

Judith Casselberry.
Every Fall. Fall 2019. Enrollment limit: 50.
  

Focuses on major humanities and social science disciplinary and interdisciplinary African American and African diaspora themes in the context of the modern world. The African American experience is addressed in its appropriate historical context, emphasizing its important place in the history of the United States and connections to African diasporic experiences, especially in the construction of the Atlantic world. Material considered chronologically and thematically builds on historically centered accounts of African American, African diaspora, and African experiences. Introduces prospective Africana studies majors and minors to the field; provides an overview of the predominant theoretical and methodological perspectives in this evolving discipline; and establishes historical context for critical analyses of African American experiences in the United States, and their engagement with the African diaspora.

Previous terms offered: Spring 2019, Fall 2018, Fall 2017, Fall 2016, Fall 2015.

AFRS 1104  (b, ESD, IP)   Introduction to African Religions and Cultures  

Deji Ogunnaike.
Every Other Fall. Fall 2019. Enrollment limit: 50.
  

By 2050, more than one-quarter of the world’s population will live in Africa, and yet African people, cultures, and religions are more misunderstood than any other. This course provides an introduction to the varied and diverse peoples and cultures of Africa, taking religion as the starting point for their ways of life. Rather than providing a survey of specific regions and populations, we will focus on broader categories, such as cosmology, family and social structure, history, arts, gender and sexuality, and economics. We will examine the ways traditional forms of religion, Christianity, and Islam have played a fundamental role in shaping the realities of African societies as well as African diaspora traditions. This course is open to all students of all backgrounds and levels of knowledge about Africa. (Same as: REL 1104)

AFRS 1105  (c)   Egyptian Archaeology  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 50.  

Introduces the techniques and methods of archaeology through an examination of Egyptian material culture. Emphasis is placed upon understanding the major monuments and artifacts of ancient Egypt from the prehistoric cultures of the Nile Valley through the period of Roman control. Architecture, sculpture, fresco painting, and other “minor arts” are examined at sites such as Saqqara, Giza, Thebes, Dendera, Tanis, and Alexandria. Considers the nature of this archaeological evidence, its context, and the relationship of archaeology to other disciplines such as africana studies, art history, anthropology, history, and classics. Course themes include the origins and development of complex state systems, funerary symbolism, contacts between Africa and the Mediterranean, and the expression of social, political and religious ideologies in art and architecture. Selected readings supplement illustrated presentations of the major archaeological finds of Egypt. Class meetings include artifact sessions in Bowdoin College Museum of Art. (Same as: ARCH 1103)

Previous terms offered: Spring 2017.

AFRS 1108  (c)   Introduction to Black Women's Literature  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 50.  

Examines the twin themes of love and sex as they relate to poems, stories, novels, and plays written by African American women from the nineteenth century to the contemporary era. Explores such issues as Reconstruction, the Great Migration, motherhood, sexism, group loyalty, racial authenticity, intra- and interracial desire, homosexuality, the intertextual unfolding of a literary tradition of black female writing, and how these writings relate to canonical African American male-authored texts and European American literary traditions. Students are expected to read texts closely, critically, and appreciatively. Possible authors: Harriet Jacobs, Frances Harper, Nella Larsen, Jessie Faucet, Ann Petry, Ntozake Shange, Suzan-Lori Parks, Alice Walker, Toni Morrison, Gayle Jones, Jamaica Kincaid, Terry McMillan, Sapphire, Lizzette Carter. (Same as: ENGL 1108, GSWS 1104)

Previous terms offered: Spring 2019, Fall 2015.

AFRS 1109  (c, ESD)   Black Women's Lives as the History of Africana Studies: Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century  

Tess Chakkalakal; Judith Casselberry.
Non-Standard Rotation. Fall 2019. Enrollment limit: 50.
  

In conjunction with the fiftieth anniversary of Africana studies at Bowdoin, this yearlong, two-part course will address debates and issues of Africana studies through the lives of black women. In Part I, students will focus on early Africana studies texts, reading works by and about Phillis Wheatley, Sojourner Truth, Frances Harper, Ida B. Wells, and Anna Julia Cooper. We will take up differences and continuities between these thinkers to understand the politics of respectability, work, representation, sexuality, and family across multiple historical contexts. (Same as: ENGL 1301, GSWS 1301)

AFRS 1211  (c, IP)   Introduction to Music in Africa  

Every Other Year. Enrollment limit: 50.  

Introduces students to the rich and diverse musical traditions of sub-Saharan Africa. Covers traditional and modern musical practices from various regions, and explores their roles in social, cultural, and political contexts from historical and contemporary perspectives. Students learn to identify basic regional musical properties and characteristic musical styles. Case studies may include West African dance-drumming, Ghanaian highlife, musical oral historians, “African Ballets,” South African a cappella, the protest music of Nigerian Fela Kuti and Zimbabwean Thomas Mapfumo, as well as contemporary hip-hop and religious pop music. Based on lectures, readings, performances by visiting artists, discussions, and audio and video sources. No prior musical knowledge necessary. (Same as: MUS 1211)

Previous terms offered: Fall 2018.

AFRS 1213  (c, ESD, VPA)   Introduction to Caribbean Dances and Cultures  

Adanna Jones.
Non-Standard Rotation. Fall 2019. Enrollment limit: 18.
  

From the folkloric dance forms to popular and secular dance practices, this course journeys through various islands and countries of the Caribbean to learn about their various histories and cultures, including the music, costumes, and basic rhythms associated with each particular dance form. This in-studio course provides a general introduction to some of the sacred and popular dances of the Caribbean. Although movement is the primary work of this course, what we learn in class may be supplemented by readings and outside research. *Please note that no prior experience or training is required. Grading will not be based on technical skill levels, but on mindful, full-bodied participation that demonstrates comprehension and articulation of course materials. (Same as: DANC 1213)

AFRS 1241  (c, ESD)   The Civil War Era  

Every Other Fall. Enrollment limit: 50.  

Examines the coming of the Civil War and the war itself in all its aspects. Considers the impact of changes in American society, the sectional crisis and breakdown of the party system, the practice of Civil War warfare, and social ramifications of the conflict. Includes readings of novels and viewing of films. Students are expected to enter with a basic knowledge of American history, and a commitment to participating in large class discussions. Note: This course is part of the following field(s) of study: United States. (Same as: HIST 1241)

Previous terms offered: Fall 2018.

AFRS 1300  (c)   Black Biography  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 50.  

Introduces students to the genre of African American biography by examining the form from its first inception in the eighteenth century with biographical sketches of important black figures -- such as Crispus Attucks, Phillis Wheatley, Frederick Douglass, and Benjamin Banneker -- to the contemporary African American biopic feature film of figures including Jackie Robinson, Mohammad Ali, and Nina Simone. (Same as: ENGL 1300)

Previous terms offered: Spring 2016.

AFRS 1320  (c)   Racial and Ethnic Conflict in American Cities  

Every Other Year. Enrollment limit: 50.  

American cities have been historic cauldrons of racial and ethnic conflict. Concentrates on urban violence in American cities since 1898. Students study moments of conflict during the early republic and the nineteenth century. Topics examined include the post-Reconstruction pogroms that overturned interracial democracy; the Red Summer and its historical memory; the ways race and ethnicity shaped urban residential space; the effects of immigration on urban political economy and society, and the conflicts over space, labor, and social relations that arose; and the waves of urban violence that spread across the country in the mid-1960s. Note: This course is part of the following field(s) of study: United States. (Same as: HIST 1320)

Previous terms offered: Spring 2016.

AFRS 1460  (c, ESD, IP)   Apartheid's Voices: South African History, 1948 to 1994  

Every Other Fall. Enrollment limit: 35.  

The study of apartheid in South Africa, the system of racial and ethnic segregation that began in 1948 and ended with the first democratic election of Nelson Mandela in 1994. Explores the many different aspects of apartheid: how and why it emerged; its social and economic impacts; its relationship to other forms of segregation and racial-based governance; and how people lived under, resisted, and collaborated with apartheid. The readings, lectures, and class discussions focus on personal South African voices and explore their diverse gendered, ethnic, and racial perspectives. NOTE: This course is part of the following field(s) of study: Africa and Atlantic Worlds. It fulfills the non Euro/US requirement for history majors and minors. (Same as: HIST 1460)

Previous terms offered: Fall 2017, Fall 2015.

AFRS 1581  (c, VPA)   History of Jazz I  

Tracy McMullen.
Every Other Fall. Fall 2019. Enrollment limit: 50.
  

A socio-cultural, historical, and analytical introduction to jazz music from the turn of the twentieth century to around 1950. Includes some concert attendance. (Same as: MUS 1281)

Previous terms offered: Fall 2017.

AFRS 1591  (c, VPA)   Rock, Pop, and Soul Music  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 50.  

Explores how a marginalized and racially segregated genre (the so called "Race Music" of the 1920s) developed into the world's most dominant popular music tradition. The history of rock, pop, and soul music and its descendants (including r&b, folk-rock, art-rock, punk, metal, and funk) will be considered through six often inter-related filters: race relations, commerce and the recording industry, politics, authenticity and image, technology, and, of course, the music itself. (Same as: MUS 1291)

Previous terms offered: Fall 2017.

AFRS 1592  (c, ESD, VPA)   Issues in Hip-Hop I  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 50.  

Traces the history of hip-hop culture (with a focus on rap music) from its beginnings in the Caribbean to its transformation into a global phenomenon by the early 1990s. Explores constructions of race, gender, class, and sexuality in hip-hop’s production, promotion, and consumption, as well as the ways in which changing media technology and corporate consolidation influenced the music. Artists/bands investigated include Grandmaster Flash, Run-D.M.C., Public Enemy, De La Soul, Queen Latifah, N.W.A., MC Lyte, Snoop Doggy Dogg, and Dr. Dre. (Same as: MUS 1292, GSWS 1592)

Previous terms offered: Fall 2018.

AFRS 2052  (b, ESD)   Race, Ethnicity, and Politics  

Chryl Laird.
Non-Standard Rotation. Fall 2019. Enrollment limit: 35.
  

Examines the impact of race and ethnicity on American politics. Key topics include the development of group identity and the mobilization of political activism. Also covers voting rights and representation, as well as impacts on education and criminal justice. Groups addressed include Native Americans, black Americans, Latinos, Asian Americans, and white Americans. (Same as: GOV 2052)

Previous terms offered: Spring 2018, Fall 2017.

AFRS 2053  (b, ESD)   Black Politics  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 35.  

Traces and examines the political efforts of black Americans to gain full and equitable inclusion into the American polity. Key topics include identity, ideology, movement politics, electoral participation, institutions and public policy. (Same as: GOV 2053)

Previous terms offered: Fall 2015.

AFRS 2140  (c, ESD)   The History of African Americans, 1619-1865  

Every Other Year. Enrollment limit: 35.  

Examines the history of African Americans from the origins of slavery in America through the death of slavery during the Civil War. Explores a wide range of topics, including the establishment of slavery in colonial America, the emergence of plantation society, control and resistance on the plantation, the culture and family structure of enslaved African Americans, free black communities, and the coming of the Civil War and the death of slavery. Note: This course is part of the following field(s) of study: United States. (Same as: HIST 2140)

Previous terms offered: Spring 2018.

AFRS 2141  (c, ESD)   The History of African Americans from 1865 to the Present  

Every Other Spring. Enrollment limit: 35.  

Explores the history of African Americans from the end of the Civil War to the present. Issues include the promises and failures of Reconstruction, the Jim Crow era, black leadership and protest institutions, African American cultural styles, industrialization and urbanization, the world wars, the Civil Rights Movement, and conservative retrenchment. Note: This course is part of the following field(s) of study: United States. (Same as: HIST 2141)

Previous terms offered: Spring 2019, Spring 2016.

AFRS 2201  (c, ESD, VPA)   Black Women, Politics, Music, and the Divine  

Every Fall. Enrollment limit: 16.  

Seminar. Examines the convergence of politics and spirituality in the musical work of contemporary black women singer-songwriters in the United States. Analyzes material that interrogates and articulates the intersections of gender, race, class, and sexuality generated across a range of religious and spiritual terrains with African diasporic/black Atlantic spiritual moorings, including Christianity, Islam, and Yoruba. Focuses on material that reveals a womanist (black feminist) perspective by considering the ways resistant identities shape and are shaped by artistic production. Employs an interdisciplinary approach by incorporating ethnomusicology, anthropology, literature, history, and performance and social theory. Explores the work of Shirley Caesar, the Clark Sisters, Meshell Ndegeocello, Abby Lincoln, Sweet Honey in the Rock, and Dianne Reeves, among others. (Same as: GSWS 2207, MUS 2291, REL 2201)

Previous terms offered: Fall 2018, Fall 2016, Fall 2015.

AFRS 2205  (c)   Representing Race in the English Renaissance  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 16.  

Intermediate Seminar. How does “race” signify in the English Renaissance, a period that witnessed the emergence of the Atlantic slave trade, intensified urbanization in European capital cities, and the development of new global trade route? Explores a range of literary strategies Renaissance authors use to represent ethnic, religious, and cultural otherness. Considers how literary and dramatic works might critique, justify, and reproduce racial ideologies. Texts include sonnets by Sidney and Shakespeare; plays by Marlowe, Shakespeare, and Middleton; masques by Ben Jonson; poetry by John Donne and William Herbert; and the first English “novel,” Aphra Behn’s “Oroonoko.” Note: Fulfills the pre-1800 literature requirement for English majors. (Same as: ENGL 2015)

Previous terms offered: Fall 2016.

AFRS 2220  (b, ESD)   “The Wire”: Race, Class, Gender, and the Urban Crisis  

Every Other Spring. Enrollment limit: 16.  

Postwar US cities were considered social, economic, political, and cultural zones of crisis. African Americans -- their families; gender relations; their relationship to urban political economy, politics, and culture -- were at the center of this discourse. Uses David Simon’s epic series “The Wire” as a critical source on postindustrial urban life, politics, conflict, and economics to cover the origins of the urban crisis, the rise of an underclass theory of urban class relations, the evolution of the urban underground economy, and the ways the urban crisis shaped depictions of African Americans in American popular culture.

Prerequisites: AFRS 1101 or EDUC 1101 or GWS 1101 or SOC 1101.

Previous terms offered: Fall 2018, Spring 2017.

AFRS 2228  (c, ESD, VPA)   Protest Music  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 35.  

Focuses on the ways black people have experienced twentieth-century events. Examines social, economic, and political catalysts for processes of protest music production across genres including gospel, blues, folk, soul, funk, rock, reggae, and rap. Analysis of musical and extra- musical elements includes style, form, production, lyrics, intent, reception, commodification, mass-media, and the Internet. Explores ways in which people experience, identify, and propose solutions to poverty, segregation, oppressive working conditions, incarceration, sexual exploitation, violence, and war. (Same as: ANTH 2227, MUS 2292)

Previous terms offered: Fall 2018, Fall 2016.

AFRS 2236  (c, ESD, VPA)   Afro-Modern II: Technique  

Adanna Jones.
Every Other Year. Fall 2019. Enrollment limit: 22.
  

A continuation of modern dance principles introduced in Dance 1211 with the addition of African-derived dance movement. The two dance aesthetics are combined to create a new form. Technique classes include center floor exercises, movement combinations across the floor, and movement phrases. Students also attend dance performances in the community. (Same as: DANC 2241)

Previous terms offered: Spring 2019.

AFRS 2240  (c)   Civil Rights and Black Power Movements in the Making of Modern America  

Every Other Year. Enrollment limit: 35.  

Examines the political activism, cultural expressions, and intellectual history that gave rise to a modern black freedom movement and its impact on the broader American (and international) society. Students study the emergence of community organizing traditions in the southern black belt as well as postwar black activism in US cities; the role the federal government played in advancing civil rights legislation; the internationalism of African American activism; and the relationship between black culture, aesthetics, and movement politics. The study of women and gender are a central component. Using biographies, speeches, and community and organization studies, students analyze the lives and contributions of Martin Luther King Jr., Ella Baker, Septima Clark, Malcolm X, Stokely Carmichael, Angela Davis, Huey Newton, and Fannie Lou Hamer, among others. Closely examines the legacies of the modern black freedom movement including the expansion of the black middle class, controversies over affirmative action, and the rise of black elected officials. Note: This course is part of the following filed(s) of study: United States. (Same as: HIST 2220)

Previous terms offered: Fall 2015.

AFRS 2241  (c, IP, VPA)   Traveling Textiles: Cultural Encounters from Trade Routes to the Runway  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 16.  

Examines the histories and roles of textiles and clothing in crosscultural exchanges. Course material explores how textiles traveled between Africa, Asia, and Europe through precolonial trade routes to how nineteenth-century African textile designs are transformed on European and American fashion show runways today. The course asks questions about how colonial empires, institutions, artists, and other individuals have used textiles to mediate exchanges with other societies. Textiles from Africa represent dynamic visual expressions to investigate issues relating to cultural representation and constructions of identity and power. From tapestries and quilts to ceremonial cloths and everyday dress, we will explore the making, circulation, and use of textiles and their designs to understand what ideas and beliefs textiles carry and communicate. The course focuses on interactions between societies in Africa and other parts of the world, especially Europe, Asia, and the Americas. (Same as: ARTH 2370)

Previous terms offered: Spring 2019.

AFRS 2250  (c, IP, VPA)   African Art and Visual Culture  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 35.  

What makes an object or artwork “African?” What meanings does this labeling carry? In short, what is Africa? These questions grapple with how to explain, understand, and represent the arts and visual cultures of an entire continent. Explores the complexities and dynamics of artistic practices in Africa—from masquerades, ivories, architecture, and urban mural paintings to the works of blacksmiths, studio photographers, and contemporary artists. Studying the arts and visual cultures of Africa leads also to an exploration of the political systems, social practices, religious beliefs, and everyday life of many different historical and contemporary societies that sharpen understandings of the diversity across the continent. (Same as: ARTH 2380)

Previous terms offered: Fall 2018.

AFRS 2251  (c, ESD, VPA)   Art and Politics in Africa  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 16.  

In the 2018 Marvel film Black Panther, a provocative scene depicts Erik Killmonger talking with a curator about the acquisition of objects at the fictional Museum of Great Britain. The curator identifies an axe from seventh-century Benin. Killmonger disagrees. “It was taken by British soldiers in Benin,” Killmonger claims, “but it’s from Wakanda,” the fictional nation portrayed in the film. This scene presents a starting point for this course’s inquiry into issues of politics and African art. The course examines the impact of colonial relations on museum collections and displays of African art today, and the roles of art as political discourse in Africa. Materials analyze how leaders and institutions have used objects to articulate authority and navigate conflict during precolonial and colonial periods, nationalist movements, and the years since countries in Africa gained political independence. Topics address broader theoretical issues of power, appropriation, resistance, and heritage. (Same as: ARTH 2360)

Previous terms offered: Spring 2019.

AFRS 2261  (c, ESD, VPA)   Holy Songs in a Strange Land  

Every Other Spring. Enrollment limit: 35.  

Seminar. Examines black sacred music from its earliest forms, fashioned by enslaved Africans, through current iterations produced by black global actors of a different sort. Explores questions such as: What does bondage sound like? What does emancipation sound like? Can we hear corresponding sounds generated by artists today? In what ways have creators of sacred music embraced, rejected, and re-envisioned the "strange land" over time? Looks at musical and lyrical content and the context in which various music genres developed, such as Negro spirituals, gospel, and sacred blues. Contemporary artists such as Janelle Monáe, Beyoncé, Bob Marley, and Michael Jackson included as well. (Same as: MUS 2261)

Previous terms offered: Spring 2019, Spring 2017, Spring 2016.

AFRS 2271  (c, ESD)   Spirit Come Down: Religion, Race, and Gender in America  

Every Spring. Enrollment limit: 35.  

Examines the ways religion, race, and gender shape people’s lives from the nineteenth century into contemporary times in America, with particular focus on black communities. Explores issues of self-representation, memory, material culture, embodiment, and civic and political engagement through autobiographical, historical, literary, anthropological, cinematic, and musical texts. (Same as: GSWS 2270, REL 2271)

Previous terms offered: Spring 2017, Spring 2016.

AFRS 2281  (c)   History of Jazz II  

Every Other Spring. Enrollment limit: 35.  

Provides a socio-cultural, historical, and analytical introduction to jazz music from around 1950 to the present. Students learn to understand the history of jazz in terms of changes in musical techniques and social values and to recognize music as a site of celebration and struggle over relationships and ideals. Students increase their ability to hear differences among performances and styles. They gain greater knowledge of US history as it affects and is affected by musical activities and learn to appreciate the stakes and motives behind the controversies and debates that have often surrounded various styles of African American music. (Same as: MUS 2281)

Prerequisites: MUS 1281 (same as AFRS 1581) or AFRS 1581.

Previous terms offered: Spring 2018.

AFRS 2292  (c, ESD, VPA)   Geographies of the Sexiness: Dance and Politics of (Dis)Respectability Across the Americas  

Every Spring. Enrollment limit: 16.  

Dance—an art form whose medium is the body—and ethnography—the study of people and their cultures—are great tools for addressing some of the ways different dancing bodies have been historically policed for “dancing sex(y).” Other tools, such as critical dance and black theories, in addition to queer and feminist approaches, will also be utilized to comprehend the uneven ways these bodies are further racialized, sexualized, and gendered within the Americas. In particular, students will learn about various dances (such as the Brazilian samba to the Cuban rumba, Jamaican Dancehall, and the Trinidadian wine) through readings, lectures, and actual in-studio dancing. Ultimately, the intention here is to understand dancing as both a meaning-making activity and a way of understanding the world. In turn, it is an important lens for critically thinking, talking, researching, and writing about politics of identity (especially regarding nationality, gender, race, and sexuality). (Same as: DANC 2505, GSWS 2505)

Previous terms offered: Spring 2019.

AFRS 2294  (c)   Issues in Hip-Hop II  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 35.  

Traces the history of hip-hop culture (with a focus on rap music) from the 1990s to the present day. Explores how ideas of race, gender, class, and sexuality are constructed and maintained in hip-hop’s production, promotion, and consumption, and how these constructions have changed and/or coalesced over time. Investigates hip-hop as a global phenomenon and the strategies and practices of hip-hop artists outside of the United States. Artists investigated range from Iggy Azalea to Jay-Z, Miz Korona to Ibn Thabit. (Same as: MUS 2294, GSWS 2294)

Prerequisites: MUS 1292 (same as AFRS 1592 and GWS 1592).

Previous terms offered: Spring 2019, Fall 2015.

AFRS 2360  (c, ESD, IP)   Recreating Africa: Diasporic Imaginings of Race and Space  

Tara Mock.
Non-Standard Rotation. Fall 2019. Enrollment limit: 35.
  

What does it mean to be African? Is the term bound by racial, ethnic, or spatial limitations? Who possesses the rights of access to the cultural products and expressions unique to the continent? This course focuses on how African and African-descended peoples remember and replicate Africa as cognitive object and cultural artifact. The course examines how the concept of Africa, as both home and identity, is recreated and imagined through diasporic perspectives. We will explore questions of home, identity, Afropolitanism, continuity, appropriation, authenticity, historical memory, and creolization, using examples from academic scholars, literary figures, and popular culture on the African continent and throughout its many diasporas. In addition to literature and research, film, music, photography, and artwork will be used to develop a critical understanding of the many contemporary forms used to recreate Africa.

AFRS 2362  (c, ESD, IP)   Africa and the Atlantic World, 1400-1880  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 35.  

A survey of historical developments before conquest by European powers, with a focus on west and central Africa. Explores the political, social, and cultural changes that accompanied the intensification of Atlantic Ocean trade and revolves around a controversy in the study of Africa and the Atlantic World: What influence did Africans have on the making of the Atlantic World, and in what ways did Africans participate in the slave trade? How were African identities shaped by the Atlantic World and by the slave plantations of the Americas? Ends by considering the contradictory effects of Abolition on Africa. Note: This course is part of the following field(s) of study: Africa and Atlantic Worlds. It also fulfills the pre-modern and non Euro/US requirements for history majors and minors. (Same as: HIST 2362)

Previous terms offered: Spring 2019, Fall 2016.

AFRS 2364  (c, ESD, IP)   Conquest, Colonialism, and Independence: Africa since 1880  

Every Other Spring. Enrollment limit: 35.  

Focuses on conquest, colonialism, and its legacies in sub-Saharan Africa; the violent process of colonial pacification, examined from European and African perspectives; the different ways of consolidating colonial rule and African resistance to colonial rule; and African nationalism and independence, as experienced by Africa’s nationalist leaders and their critics. Concludes with the crisis of the postcolonial state in West African countries. Note: This course is part of the following field(s) of study: Africa and Colonial Worlds. (Same as: HIST 2364,HIST 2364)

Previous terms offered: Spring 2017.

AFRS 2365  (c, IP)   The Rise of Swahili Civilization  

David Gordon.
Non-Standard Rotation. Fall 2019. Enrollment limit: 35.
  

Considers the millennium-old interactions between peoples of Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia that created Swahili civilizations stretching from Mogadishu to Madagascar. Themes include the rise of dhow-based maritime trade; the spread of Islam; the slave trade and slavery; Omani, Portuguese, British, Italian, and German colonialisms; late colonial conflicts including the Mau Mau rebellion in Kenya and the revolution in Zanzibari. Ends with the rise of the post-colonial states of Tanzania, Kenya, Mozambique, Madagascar, and Somalia, and rebel insurgencies such as Somali pirates and Islamic fundamentalism. Note:This course is part of the following field(s) of study: Africa. This course meets the non-European/ US and pre-modern requirements for the History Major. (Same as: HIST 2365)

Previous terms offered: Spring 2017.

AFRS 2380  (c, IP)   Christianity and Islam in West Africa  

Every Fall. Enrollment limit: 35.  

Explores how Christianity, Islam, and indigenous African religious beliefs shaped the formation of West African states from the nineteenth-century Islamic reformist movements and mission Christianity, to the formation of modern nation-states in the twentieth century. While the course provides a broad regional West African overview, careful attention is paid to how religious themes shaped the communities of the Nigerian region--a critical West African region where Christianity and Islam converged to transform a modern state and society. Drawing on primary and secondary historical texts as well as Africanist works in sociology and comparative politics, this Nigerian experience illuminates broader West African, African, and global perspectives that underscore the historical significance of religion in politics and society, especially in non-Western contexts. Note: This course is part of the following field(s) of study: Africa. (Same as: HIST 2380)

Previous terms offered: Fall 2016, Fall 2015.

AFRS 2384  (c, ESD, IP)   Deities in Motion: Afro-Diasporic Religions  

Deji Ogunnaike.
Every Other Fall. Fall 2019. Enrollment limit: 16.
  

Religion has been central not only in the lives of members of the Black Atlantic World and also in terms of the formation of this world. This class provides a survey of some of the most prominent Afro-Atlantic diasporic religions such as Haïtian Vodou, Brazilian Candomblé, Trinidadian Shango, and Cuban Santería/Regla de Ocha and also explores the particular dynamics of the Religion has been central not only in the lives of members of the Black Atlantic World but also in terms of the formation of this world. This class provides a survey of some of the most prominent Afro-Atlantic diasporic religions, such as Haïtian Vodou, Brazilian Candomblé, Trinidadian Shango, and Cuban Santería/Regla de Ocha, and also explores the particular dynamics of the African religious diaspora. Complicating common assumptions about relations between diaspora and homeland as well as what constitutes a religion, it addresses issues of authenticity and authority, ancestrality, race, gender, transnationalism, and even problematic (mis)representations in Western society and pop culture. We will also pay close attention to the important and complicated role that the transatlantic slave trade played in the formation of these Atlantic societies and aspects of these religious traditions, such as conceptions of God and divinities, syncretism, divination, and spirit possession. (Same as: REL 2484)

AFRS 2406  (c)   The African Diaspora in France and the Crisis of Citizenship  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 16.  

One of the consequences of the French imperial experience has been the profound transformation not only of colonized regions, but also of French society and culture. This seminar will scrutinize the relationship between France and its former colonies in Africa, with a special emphasis on the current debates about national identity, difference, and assimilation in France. Through an exploration of novels, films, and popular cultures, our descent into the debate about national identity in France will trace and understand the presumed differences between French ‘‘natives,’’ ‘‘immigrants,’’ and ‘‘citizens.’’ Novels and films will include works by Medhi Charef, thomte Ryam, Faïza Guène, Tahar ben Jelloun, Rachid Bouchareb, Mathieu Kassovitz, and Yamina Benguigui. (Same as: FRS 3221)

Prerequisites: Two of: either FRS 2409 (same as AFRS 2409 and LAS 2209) or FRS 2410 (same as AFRS 2412 and LAS 2210) or FRS 3000 or higher and either FRS 2409 (same as AFRS 2409 and LAS 2209) or FRS 2410 (same as AFRS 2412 and LAS 2210) or FRS 3000 or higher.

Previous terms offered: Spring 2019.

AFRS 2407  (c, ESD, IP)   Francophone Cultures  

Every Spring. Enrollment limit: 18.  

An introduction to the cultures of various French-speaking regions outside of France. Examines the history, politics, customs, cinema, and the arts of the Francophone world, principally Africa and the Caribbean. Increases cultural understanding prior to study abroad in French-speaking regions. (Same as: FRS 2407, LAS 2407)

Prerequisites: FRS 2305 or higher or Placement in FRS 2400 level.

Previous terms offered: Spring 2018, Spring 2017.

AFRS 2409  (c, ESD, IP)   Spoken Word and Written Text  

Charlotte Daniels.
Every Semester. Fall 2019. Enrollment limit: 18.
  

Examines oral and written traditions of areas where French is spoken in Africa, the Caribbean, Europe, and North America from the Middle Ages to 1848. Through interdisciplinary units, students examine key moments in the history of the francophone world, drawing on folktales, epics, poetry, plays, short stories, essays, and novels. Explores questions of identity, race, colonization, and language in historical and ideological context. Taught in French. (Same as: FRS 2409, LAS 2209)

Prerequisites: FRS 2305 or higher or Placement in FRS 2400 level.

Previous terms offered: Spring 2019, Fall 2018, Spring 2018, Fall 2017, Spring 2017, Fall 2016.

AFRS 2412  (c, ESD, IP)   Literature, Power, and Resistance  

Meryem Belkaid.
Every Semester. Fall 2019. Enrollment limit: 18.
  

Examines questions of power and resistance as addressed in the literary production of the French-speaking world from the nineteenth through the twenty-first centuries. Examines how language and literature serve as tools for both oppression and liberation during periods of turmoil: political and social revolutions, colonization and decolonization, the first and second world wars. Authors may include Hugo, Sand, Sartre, Fanon, Senghor, Yacine, Beauvoir, Condé, Césaire, Djebar, Camus, Modiano, Perec, and Piketty. Students gain familiarity with a range of genres and artistic movements and explore the myriad ways that literature and language reinforce boundaries and register dissent. Taught in French. (Same as: FRS 2410, LAS 2210)

Prerequisites: FRS 2305 or higher or Placement in FRS 2400 level.

Previous terms offered: Spring 2019, Fall 2018, Spring 2018, Fall 2017, Spring 2017, Fall 2016.

AFRS 2502  (c, ESD, VPA)   Introduction to Black Performance Studies  

Every Other Fall. Enrollment limit: 16.  

What does it mean to say that we perform our identities? What role can performance play in the fight for racial and social justice?,What role has performance played in shaping the history of black Americans, a people long denied access to literacy? Performance studies--an interdisciplinary field devoted to the study of a range of aesthetic practices--offers us insight into such questions. Investigates various performances, including contemporary plays, movies and television, dance, and social media. Queries the relationships between identities like race, gender, class, and performance as well as the connection between performance onstage and in everyday life. (Same as: THTR 2503, DANC 2503)

Previous terms offered: Fall 2015.

AFRS 2504  (c)   Nineteenth-Century American Fiction  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 35.  

Historical survey of nineteenth-century American fiction, including works by Washington Irving, Catherine Sedgwick, Herman Melville, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Frank Webb, Harriet Beecher Stowe, William Wells Brown, Mark Twain, Frank Norris, Henry James, John DeForest, Edith Wharton, William Dean Howells, and Charles Chesnutt. Note: Fulfills the literature of the Americas requirement for English majors. (Same as: ENGL 2504)

Prerequisites: ENGL 1000 - 1049 or ENGL 1100 - 1999 or AFRS 1000 - 1049 or AFRS 1100 - 1999.

Previous terms offered: Spring 2016.

AFRS 2506  (c, ESD)   American Literature II: 1865 - 1920  

Every Other Spring. Enrollment limit: 35.  

Continues the themes and issues introduced in American Literature I into the latter part of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In particular, examines the aftermath of the Civil War and slavery, both its material devastation as well as the technological and literary innovation it generated that helped the country prosper for the next five decades. Examines the development of various literary movements including, realism, naturalism, and African American literature through readings of works by William Dean Howells, Henry James, Edith Wharton, W.E.B. DuBois, Charles Chesnutt, Paul Laurence Dunbar, Booker T. Washington, Stephen Crane, Sarah Orne Jewett, Mark Twain, Ida B. Wells, Frank Norris, Pauline Hopkins, and F. Scott Fitzgerald. (Same as: ENGL 2506)

Previous terms offered: Spring 2019.

AFRS 2530  (b, IP)   Politics and Societies in Africa  

Ericka Albaugh.
Non-Standard Rotation. Fall 2019. Enrollment limit: 35.
  

Surveys societies and politics in sub-Saharan Africa, seeking to understand the sources of current conditions and the prospects for political stability and economic growth. Looks briefly at pre-colonial society and colonial influence on state-construction in Africa, and concentrates on three broad phases in Africa’s contemporary political development: (1) independence and consolidation of authoritarian rule; (2) economic decline and challenges to authoritarianism; (3) democratization and civil conflict. Presumes no prior knowledge of the region. (Same as: GOV 2530)

Previous terms offered: Spring 2018, Fall 2015.

AFRS 2582  (c)   Reading "Uncle Tom's Cabin"  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 16.  

Introduces students to the controversial history of reader responses to Harriet Beecher Stowe’s 1852 antislavery novel, Uncle Tom’s Cabin. Students engage with various theoretical approaches—reader response theory, feminist, African Americanist, and historicist—to the novel, then turn to the novel itself and produce their own literary interpretation. In order to do so, students examine the conditions of the novel’s original production. By visiting various historic locations, the Stowe House on Federal Street, the First Parish on Maine Street, Special Collections of the Hawthorne-Longfellow Library, students compare the novel’s original historical context to the history that the novel produced. Aside from reading Stowe’s antislavery fiction, students also read works produced with and against Uncle Tom’s Cabin. (Same as: ENGL 2582)

Previous terms offered: Fall 2018, Spring 2018.

AFRS 2600  (c)   African American Poetry  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 35.  

African American poetry as counter-memory -- from Wheatley to the present -- with a focus on oral traditions, activist literary discourses, trauma and healing, and productive communities. Special emphasis on the past century: dialect and masking; the Harlem Renaissance; Brown, Brooks, and Hayden at mid-century; the Black Arts Movement; black feminism; and contemporary voices. (Same as: ENGL 2600)

Previous terms offered: Fall 2016.

AFRS 2603  (c, ESD)   African American Fiction: Humor and Resistance  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 35.  

Explores rich traditions of African American humor in fiction, comics, graphic narratives, and film. Considers strategies of cultural survival and liberation, as well as folkloric sources, trickster storytellers, comic double-voicing, and the lampooning of racial ideologies. Close attention paid to modes of burlesque, satirical deformation, caricature, tragicomedy, and parody in historical and contemporary contexts, including such writers and performers as Charles Chesnutt, Bert Williams, Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, Richard Pryor, Ishmael Reed, Aaron McGruder, Dave Chappelle, and Suzan-Lori Parks. (Same as: ENGL 2603)

Previous terms offered: Spring 2018, Spring 2016.

AFRS 2605  (c)   The Harlem Renaissance  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 35.  

Focuses on the African American literary and cultural call-to-arms of the 1920s. Modernist resistance languages; alliances and betrayals on the left; gender, sexuality, and cultural images; activism and literary journalism; and music and visual culture are of special interest. (Same as: ENGL 2605)

Previous terms offered: Spring 2017.

AFRS 2620  (c, ESD)   Separate and Unequal: Education, Race, and Democracy in the United States  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 35.  

Examines the often-fraught connection between American educational ideals and the particularly American history of race and racism. Students will analyze this changing, contested, and pivotal connection through historical and philosophical perspectives. The course focuses on pivotal moments in the history of American education such as the development and expansion of public schools in the nineteenth century, the progressive education era, and the desegregation of American public education. In each of these moments, students will explore the actions of people—black, white, thinkers, theorists, activists, litigators, students, parents, educators, and citizens—who struggled to shape American education, as well as the ways in which the ideals driving such moments were both shaped by and silent to ongoing struggles surrounding race and racism. The course will conclude by asking students to examine how race and racism continue to shape American education today. (Same as: EDUC 2310)

Prerequisites: EDUC 1101 or AFRS 1101.

Previous terms offered: Spring 2019.

AFRS 2621  (b)   Reconstruction  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 16.  

Seminar. Close examination of the decade following the Civil War. Explores the events and scholarship of the Union attempt to create a biracial democracy in the South following the war, and the sources of its failure. Topics include wartime Reconstruction, the Ku Klux Klan, Republican politics, and Democratic Redemption. Special attention paid to the deeply conflicted ways historians have approached this period over the years. Note: This course is part of the following field(s) of study: United States. (Same as: HIST 2621)

Prerequisites: HIST 1000 - 2969 or HIST 3000 or higher.

Previous terms offered: Spring 2019.

AFRS 2626  (c, ESD)   African Americans in New York City Since 1627  

Every Other Spring. Enrollment limit: 16.  

Intermediate seminar. Covers the history of people of African descent in what becomes New York City from the Dutch colonial period through the present. Students read key books on all major historical themes and periods, such as the early history of slavery and the slave trade; black life and religion during the early republic and gradual emancipation; the Civil War and draft riots; black communal life during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; the Harlem Renaissance; the Great Depression; the civil rights era; the age of urban crisis; the 1980s and the rise of hip-hop; and blacklife since 9-11. Students gain wide exposure to working with primary sources.

Previous terms offered: Spring 2018.

AFRS 2630  (c)   Staging Blackness  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 35.  

Examines the history and contributions of African Americans to United States theater from the early blackface minstrel tradition, to the revolutionary theater of the Black Arts writers, to more recent postmodernist stage spectacles. Among other concerns, such works often dramatize the efforts of African Americans to negotiate ongoing tensions between individual needs and group demands that result from historically changing forms of racial marginalization. A particular goal is to highlight what Kimberly Benston has termed the expressive agency with which black writers and performers have imbued their theatrical presentations. Potential authors include Zora Neale Hurston, Langston Hughes, Lorraine Hansberry, Amiri Baraka, Ron Milner, Adrienne Kennedy, Ntozake Shange, George C. Wolfe, Anna Deavere Smith, Afro Pomo Homos, and August Wilson. (Same as: ENGL 2654, THTR 2854)

Previous terms offered: Fall 2018.

AFRS 2650  (c)   African American Fiction: (Re) Writing Black Masculinities  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 35.  

In 1845, Frederick Douglass told his white readers: “You have seen how a man was made a slave; you shall see how a slave was made a man.” This simple statement effectively describes the enduring paradox of African American male identity: although black and white males share a genital sameness, until the nation elected its first African American president the former has inhabited a culturally subjugated gender identity in a society premised on both white supremacy and patriarchy. But Douglass’s statement also suggests that black maleness is a discursive construction, i.e. that it changes over time. If this is so, how does it change? What are the modes of its production and how have black men over time operated as agents in reshaping their own masculinities? Reading a range of literary and cultural texts, both past and present, students examine the myriad ramifications of, and creative responses to, this ongoing challenge. (Same as: ENGL 2650, GSWS 2260)

Previous terms offered: Fall 2017.

AFRS 2651  (c, ESD)   Queer Race  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 35.  

How does the concept of queerness signify in cultural texts that are ostensibly about the struggle for racial equality? And vice versa, how does the concept of racialization signify in cultural texts that are ostensibly about the struggle for LGBT recognition and justice? While some of this work tends to reduce queer to traditional sexual minorities like lesbigay and trans folk while downplaying racial considerations, others tend to limit the category race to people of color like blacks while downplaying questions about sexuality. Such critical and creative gestures often place queer and race in opposition rather than as intersecting phenomena. Students examine the theoretical and cultural assumptions of such gestures, and their implications, through close readings of selected works in both the LGBT and African American literary traditions. (Same as: ENGL 2651, GSWS 2651)

Prerequisites: ENGL 1000 - 1049 or ENGL 1100 - 1999 or AFRS 1000 - 1049 or AFRS 1100 - 1999 or GLS 1000 - 1049 or GLS 1100 - 1999.

Previous terms offered: Spring 2018.

AFRS 2652  (c)   African American Writers and Autobiography  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 16.  

Intermediate Seminar. The struggle against anti-black racism has often required that individual African Americans serve as representative figures of the race. How have twentieth- and twenty-first-century black authors tackled the challenge of having to speak for the collective while also writing narratives that explore the singularity of an individual life? What textual approaches have these authors employed to negotiate this tension between what theorists of the genre broadly call referentiality and subjectivity? Authors include W. E. B. Du Bois, Zora Neale Hurston, Malcolm X, Jamaica Kincaid, Maya Angelou, Samuel Delaney, Barack Obama, among others. Note: Fulfills the literature of the Americas requirement for English majors. (Same as: ENGL 2013)

Previous terms offered: Spring 2016.

AFRS 2653  (c)   Interracial Narratives  

Guy Mark Foster.
Non-Standard Rotation. Fall 2019. Enrollment limit: 35.
  

Violence and interracial sex have long been conjoined in U.S. literary, televisual, and filmic work. The enduring nature of this conjoining suggests there is some symbolic logic at work in these narratives, such that black/white intimacy functions as a figural stand-in for negative (and sometimes positive) commentary on black/white social conflict. When this happens, what becomes of “sex” as a historically changing phenomenon when it is yoked to the historically unchanging phenomenon of the “interracial”? Although counter-narratives have recently emerged to compete with such symbolic portrayals, i.e. romance novels, popular films and television shows, not all of these works have displaced this earlier figural logic; in some cases, this logic has merely been updated. Explores the broader cultural implications of both types of narratives. Possible authors/texts: Richard Wright, Chester Himes, Ann Petry, Lillian Smith, Jack Kerouac, Frantz Fanon, Kara Walker, Amiri Baraka, Alice Walker, Octavia Butler, John R. Gordon, Kim McLarin, Monster’s Ball, Far From Heaven, and Sex and the City. (Same as: ENGL 2653, GSWS 2283)

Previous terms offered: Fall 2016.

AFRS 2654  (c)   White Negroes  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 16.  

Intermediate seminar. Close readings of literary and filmic texts that interrogate widespread beliefs in the fixity of racial categories and the broad assumptions these beliefs often engender. Investigates “whiteness” and “blackness” as unstable and fractured ideological constructs. These are constructs that, while socially and historically produced, are no less “real” in their tangible effects, whether internal or external. Includes works by Charles Chesnutt, Nella Larsen, Norman Mailer, Jack Kerouac, John Howard Griffin, Andrea Lee, Sandra Bernhard, and Warren Beatty. (Same as: ENGL 2004, GSWS 2257)

Previous terms offered: Spring 2018.

AFRS 2660  (c, VPA)   African Americans and Art  

Dana Byrd.
Non-Standard Rotation. Fall 2019. Enrollment limit: 50.
  

Investigates the intersection of African American life and art. Topics include the changing definitions of “African American Art,” the embrace of African cultural production, race and representation in slavery and freedom, art as source of inspiration for social movements, and the politics of exhibition. Our mission is to develop art-historical knowledge about this critical aspect of American art history, while facilitating ways of seeing and writing about art. (Same as: ARTH 1500)

AFRS 2700  (c, ESD)   Martin, Malcolm and America  

Every Other Year. Enrollment limit: 16.  

Seminar. Examines the lives and thoughts of Martin L. King Jr. and Malcolm X. Traces the development in their thinking and examines the similarities and differences between them. Evaluates their contribution to the African American freedom struggle, American society, and the world. Emphasizes very close reading of primary and secondary material, use of audio and videocassettes, lecture presentations, and class discussions. In addition to being an academic study of these two men’s political and religious commitment, also concerns how they inform our own political and social lives. Note: This course is part of the following field(s) of study: United States. (Same as: HIST 2700)

Previous terms offered: Spring 2019, Spring 2017.

AFRS 2820  (c, IP)   Toward the Arab Spring in North Africa: Colonialism, Nation-Building and Popular Uprisings  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 35.  

The 2011 uprisings that began in Tunisia sparked a wave of revolutions in the Arab region. Protesters demanded dignity, social justice, and the fall of authoritarian regimes. The Arab Spring was the latest instance in a long tradition of popular contestation in in Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, and Libya. This course will explore the historical relationship between rulers and ruled populations and their contentious history from colonialism to the present by focusing on conflicts of a political, social, economic, and cultural nature. The course explores how popular protests evolved along the way and the different roles they have applied during these countries’ transformations in the past century. Examples will include anti-colonial protests, anti-imperial solidarity movements, trade unions and workers marches, armed regional insurrections, student mobilization on university campuses, cultural dissidence, Berber contestation, anti-austerity riots, Islamist politics, and civil society activism. . Note: This course is part of the following field(s) of study: Africa. It fulfills the non Euro/US requirement for History majors and minors. (Same as: HIST 2295)

Previous terms offered: Spring 2019.

AFRS 2821  (c, ESD, IP)   After Mandela: History, Memory, and Identity in Contemporary South Africa  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 16.  

How do South Africans remember their past? Begins with the difficulties in developing a conciliatory version of the past during Nelson Mandela’s presidency immediately after apartheid. Then explores the changing historiography and popular memory of diverse historical episodes, including European settlement, the Khoisan “Hottentot Venus” Sara Baartman, Shaka Zulu, the Great Trek, the Anglo-Boer War, the onset of apartheid, and resistance to it. Aims to understand the present-day social, economic, and cultural forces that shape the memories of South Africans and the academic historiography of South Africa. Note: This course is part of the following field(s) of study: Africa. It fulfills the non Euro/US requirement for history majors and minors. (Same as: HIST 2821)

Previous terms offered: Spring 2019, Fall 2016.

AFRS 2822  (c, IP)   Warlords and Child Soldiers in African History  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 16.  

Seminar. Examines how gender, age, religion, and race have informed ideologies of violence by considering various historical incarnations of the African warrior across modern history, including the military slave, the mercenary, the revolutionary, the warlord, the religious warrior, and the child soldier. Analyzes the nature of warfare in modern African history and how fighters, followers, African civilians, and the international community have imagined the “work of war” in Africa. Readings include scholarly analyses of warfare, warriors, and warrior ideals alongside memoirs and fictional representations. Note: This course is part of the following field(s) of study: Africa. It fulfills the non Euro/US requirement for history majors and minors. (Same as: HIST 2822)

Previous terms offered: Fall 2018, Spring 2016.

AFRS 2823  (c, IP)   Sacred Icons and Museum Pieces: The Powers of Central African Art  

David Gordon.
Non-Standard Rotation. Fall 2019. Enrollment limit: 16.
  

Seminar. The art of Central Africa inspired European avant-garde artists from Pablo Picasso to Paul Klee. This course explores art as a historical source. What does the production, use, commerce, and display of art reveal about politics, ideology, religion, and aesthetics? Prior to European colonialism, what was the relationship between art and politics in Central Africa? How did art represent power? What does it reveal about gender relations, social divisions, and cultural ideals? The course then turns to the Euro-American scramble for Central African art at the onset of European colonialism. How did the collection of art, its celebration by European artists, and display in European and American museums transform patterns of production, cultural functions and aesthetic styles of Central African art? The course ends with current debates over the repatriation of African art. Note:This course is part of the following field(s) of study: Africa. This course meets the non-European/ US History requirements. (Same as: HIST 2823, ARTH 2390)

Previous terms offered: Spring 2017.

AFRS 2825  (c, ESD, IP)   The Black Pacific: Historical and Contemporary Afro-Asian Diasporas  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 16.  

Paul Gilroy’s “The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness” (1995) explores the global black experience and black identity formations through a transatlantic frame. Gilroy’s thesis argues that contemporary black identity constructions are a result of ongoing processes of travel and exchange between Africa, Europe, and the ‘New World’ during earlier periods of capital accumulation (transatlantic slavery and colonialism). Disrupts Gilroy’s thesis, repositioning the focus, temporally and spatially, eastward. Examines often underexplored routes of passage and exchange between the African continent and the peoples of Japan, China, India, the Pacific Islands, and the Middle East. In doing so, considers Afro-Pacific encounters, exploring the circumstances for retaining and reclaiming Africana identity within these newly created communities.

Previous terms offered: Fall 2018.

AFRS 2826  (b, ESD, IP)   The New Scramble for Africa: Capital Accumulation in the Global  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 35.  

More than a century after European powers initially carved up the African continent during the Berlin Conference (1884–1885), Africa is again attracting the renewed attention of foreign powers interested in its extractive resources, land, markets, and positioning. The contemporary landscape differs from the “Scramble for Africa,” as it marks a shift from a solidly Western-led initiative to one in which new actors from the global south are taking on more pivotal roles. Superpowers (the United States, China, and Russia), colonial powers (UK, France, and Belgium), and less powerful states (Japan, India, and Brazil) are in competition with emerging African nations (Nigeria and South Africa) for wealth and influence on the continent. The course dedicates considerable time to exploring contemporary interactions between African states and their most significant external partner—China—considering questions of neocolonialism and neoimperialism, and asks students to conclude whether a new scramble for Africa is underway. (Same as: ASNS 2855)

Previous terms offered: Spring 2019.

AFRS 2840  (c, IP)   African Migration and Globalization  

Every Fall. Enrollment limit: 16.  

Seminar. Drawing on key readings on the historical sociology of transnationalism since World War II, examines how postcolonial African migrations transformed African states and their new transnational populations in Western countries. Discusses what concepts such as the nation state, communal identity, global relations, and security mean in the African context to critically explore complex African transnational experiences and globalization. These dynamic African transnational encounters encourage discussions on homeland and diaspora, tradition and modernity, gender and generation. Note: This course is part of the following field(s) of study: Africa, and Atlantic Worlds. (Same as: HIST 2840)

Previous terms offered: Fall 2016, Fall 2015.

AFRS 2841  (b, IP)   History of African and African Diaspora Thought  

Every Other Spring. Enrollment limit: 35.  

Lecture course on seminal works in African and African diasporic thought since the decline of Atlantic slavery in the nineteenth century to the period of decolonization after the Second World War. Topics include anti-slavery movement, mission Christianity, Islamic reformism, Pan-Africanism, Negritude, colonialism, nationalism, neocolonialism, and black feminist thought. Lectures presented in the context of global and regional historical currents in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. (Same as: HIST 2381)

Previous terms offered: Spring 2016.

AFRS 2862  (c, IP)   The Haitian Revolution and its Legacy  

Every Other Fall. Enrollment limit: 16.  

Seminar. Examines one of the most neglected revolutions in history, and arguably, one of its most significant. The first half of the course treats the Revolution’s causes and tracks its evolution between 1791-1804. The second part studies its aftermath and its impact on Haiti, the Caribbean, Latin America, Europe, Africa, and the United States. Course requirements include four short papers on the readings and one substantive paper that assesses the scholarly literature on a topic of the student’s choosing. This course is part of the following field(s) of study: Latin America, Atlantic Worlds, and Colonial Worlds. (Same as: HIST 2862, LAS 2162)

Prerequisites: HIST 1000 - 2969 or LAS 1000 - 2969.

Previous terms offered: Fall 2016.

AFRS 2870  (c, IP)   The Rise and Fall of New World Slavery  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 16.  

Seminar. The form of slavery pioneered by Europeans who brought Africans to the New World occupies a unique place in the institution's long story. Examines the rise and demise of New World slavery: its founding, central practices, and long-term consequences. Just as New World slavery deserves to be considered a unique historical practice, so too do the impulses and transformations that led to its ending. Explores slavery as it rose and fell throughout the Atlantic basin, focusing particularly on Brazil, the Caribbean, and mainland North America. Investigates a range of issues: the emergence of market economies, definitions of race attendant to European commercial expansion, the cultures of Africans in the diaspora, slave control and resistance, free black people and the social structure of New World slave societies, and emancipation and its aftermath. Note: This course is part of the following field(s) of study: United States; Atlantic Worlds, Colonial Worlds, and Latin America. It fulfills the non Euro/US requirement for History majors and minors. (Same as: HIST 2870)

Previous terms offered: Fall 2015.

AFRS 3005  (b)   Race, Crime, and the Law in the United States  

Every Other Fall. Enrollment limit: 16.  

Advanced seminar on the criminal justice system in America and the ways African Americans specifically, and racial minorities in general, experience protection and prosecution in it. Students read Harvard Law Professor Randall Kennedy's provocative text of the same title and explore and debate such topics as racial criteria in jury selection, racial disparities and capital punishment, and the rise of mass incarceration in America. Students study key Supreme Court decisions that have considered questions of race and criminal justice. Students conduct research on a specific academic question or policy issue of their choosing and present their findings.

Previous terms offered: Fall 2017.

AFRS 3010  (c)   Reconstruction and Realism  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 16.  

Explores the rise of American literary realism that occurred following the Civil War and its relationship to the social and political events of the South’s Reconstruction. Studies works by the major figures of the movement such as Charles Chesnutt, Paul Laurence Dunbar, William Dean Howells, Henry James, Sarah Orne Jewett, Mark Twain, and Edith Wharton. Students are required to develop original readings of these literary texts that engage the political and social contexts in which they were produced. All students present their research in written and oral form. Fulfills the advanced seminar requirement for African studies and English majors. (Same as: ENGL 3800)

Prerequisites: AFRS 2000 - 2969 or ENGL 2000 - 2969.

Previous terms offered: Spring 2018.

AFRS 3011  (c)   African American Film  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 16.  

Advanced Seminar. Explores a spectrum of films produced since 1950 that engage African American cultural experience. Topics may include black-white buddy movies, the L.A. Rebellion, blaxploitation, the hood genre, cult classics, comedy and cross-dressing, and romance dramas. Of special interest will be the documentary impulse in contemporary African American film; gender, sexuality, and cultural images; the politics of interpretation—writers, filmmakers, critics, and audiences; and the urban context and the economics of alienation. Extensive readings in film and cultural theory and criticism. Note: Fulfills the film theory requirement for Cinema Studies minors. (Same as: ENGL 3011, CINE 3011)

Prerequisites: ENGL 1000 or higher or AFRS 1000 or higher or FILM 1000 or higher or CINE 1000 or higher.

Previous terms offered: Fall 2017, Fall 2015.

AFRS 3015  (c)   James Baldwin  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 15.  

Examines the major postwar writings of the controversial African American author and the role his fiction and nonfiction played in challenging that era’s static understandings of racial, gender, and sexual politics. Although Baldwin lived abroad for much of his life, many critics associate the author narrowly with the United States black civil rights and sexual liberation struggles. In recent years, however, Baldwin has increasingly been recognized as a transnational figure and for his invaluable contributions to the discourse of globalization. Indeed, Baldwin’s “geographical imagination,” one informed by critical racial literacy, led him to anticipate many of the central insights of contemporary Queer Studies, Whiteness Studies, as well as Africana philosophical thought. (Same as: ENGL 3015, GSWS 3015)

Prerequisites: ENGL 2000 - 2969 or AFRS 2000 - 2969 or GLS 2000 - 2969 or GSWS 2000 - 2969.

Previous terms offered: Spring 2017.

AFRS 3020  (c, ESD)   Black Heat, Black Cool: Theorizing Blackness  

Every Spring. Enrollment limit: 16.  

Interdisciplinary examination of ideas and expressions of blackness by black people in the United States from the nineteenth century to the present. Shifts focus from “what” is blackness to “where” and “when” is blackness. Students analyze the fluidity of blackness and the implications for the production of ideologies, discourses, and identities of black people. Materials for analysis may include primary and secondary written texts, film, video, and audio by James Baldwin, Beyoncé, Julie Dash, Martin Luther King Jr., Saidiya Hartman, Nina Simone Hortense Spillers, and Ida B. Wells.

Previous terms offered: Spring 2019.

AFRS 3033  (c, ESD)   Contemporary Narratives of Slavery  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 16.  

Examines recent literary and filmic narratives of slavery. Some scholars claim these texts heal readers of psychic pain while also facilitating a deep connection to long departed ancestors. For others, these works only nurture the “ledger of racist slights” that diasporic blacks continue to catalogue to the present day, all the while distracting each of us from cultivating a more hopeful stance with respect to our collective present. This course maps a critical space beyond the binary of either “therapeutic” or “prohibitive” claims to engage questions of racialized experience, feeling, identification, and desire. Authors and texts may include: Birth of a Nation, Octavia Butler, John R. Gordon, Yaa Gyasi, Toni Morrison, and Colson Whitehead. (Same as: ENGL 3033)

Prerequisites: ENGL 1000 - 1049 or ENGL 1100 - 2969 or ENGL 3000 (same as GSWS 3000) or higher.

Previous terms offered: Spring 2019.

AFRS 3151  (c, ESD)   Advanced Concepts in Music and Culture: African American Music  

Every Other Year. Enrollment limit: 15.  

Examines music as a cultural “actor” within the context of American history. Central concerns may include representations of racialized identity via music; interpretation and reception of musical genres; “freedom” and constraint in musical performance; and issues of appropriation, musical borrowing, essentialism, and tradition. Authors may include Ralph Ellison, Amiri Baraka, Eileen Southern, and Sylvia Wynter. Artists and genres may include Kendrick Lamar, Nina Simone, John Coltrane, gospel, jazz, and hip hop. No music theory knowledge necessary. (Same as: MUS 3151)

Prerequisites: AFRS 1101 or ANTH 1101.

Previous terms offered: Fall 2018.

AFRS 3201  (c)   Voices of Women, Voices of the People  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 16.  

Focuses on texts written by women from French-speaking West African, Central African, and Caribbean countries. Themes treated -- woman and/in colonization and slavery, memory, alienation, womanhood, individual and collective identity, gender relationships, women and tradition, women and modernism -- are approached from historical, anthropological, political, sociological, and gender perspectives. Readings by Tanella Boni (Côte dIvoire), Marie-Léontine Tsibinda (Congo-Brazzaville), Maryse Condé (Guadeloupe), Fabienne Kanor (Martinique), Marie-Célie Agnant (Haïti). (Same as: FRS 3201, GSWS 3323, LAS 3222)

Prerequisites: Two of: either FRS 2409 (same as AFRS 2409 and LAS 2209) or FRS 2410 (same as AFRS 2412 and LAS 2210) or FRS 3000 or higher and either FRS 2409 (same as AFRS 2409 and LAS 2209) or FRS 2410 (same as AFRS 2412 and LAS 2210) or FRS 3000 or higher.

Previous terms offered: Fall 2017.

AFRS 3211  (c)   Bringing the Female Maroon to Memory: Female Marronage and Douboutism in French Caribbean Literature  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 16.  

History has retained the names of great male Caribbean heroes and freedom fighters during slavery such as the Haitians, Mackandal or Toussaint Louverture, the Jamaican, Cudjoe or the Cuban Coba. Enslaved Africans who rebelled against oppression and fled from the plantation system are called maroons and their act, marronage. Except for Queen Nanny of the Jamaican Blue Mountains, only male names have been consecrated as maroons. Yet, enslaved women did fight against slavery and practice marronage. Caribbean writers have made a point of bringing to memory forgotten acts of marronage by women during slavery or shortly thereafter. Proposes to examine the fictional treatment French-speaking Caribbean authors grant to African or Afro-descent women who historically rebelled against slavery and colonization. Literary works studied against the backdrop of douboutism, a conceptual framework derived from the common perception about women in the French Caribbeanwhich means strong woman. Authors studied may include Suzanne Dracius (Martinique), Fabienne Kanor (Martinique), André Schwart-Bart (Guadeloupe), Maryse Condé (Guadeloupe), Evelyn Trouillot (Haiti). Conducted in French. (Same as: FRS 3211, GSWS 3211, LAS 3211)

Prerequisites: Two of: either FRS 2409 (same as AFRS 2409 and LAS 2209) or FRS 2410 (same as AFRS 2412 and LAS 2210) or FRS 3000 or higher and either FRS 2409 (same as AFRS 2409 and LAS 2209) or FRS 2410 (same as AFRS 2412 and LAS 2210) or FRS 3000 or higher.

Previous terms offered: Fall 2016.

AFRS 3213  (c)   Aesthetics in Africa and Europe  

Hanetha Vete-Congolo.
Non-Standard Rotation. Fall 2019. Enrollment limit: 18.
  

Aesthetics -- the critical reflection on art, taste, and culture; as much as beauty, the set of properties of an object that arouses pleasure--are central to all aspects of society-building and human life and relationships. Examines the notions of aesthetics and beauty, from pre-Colonial to contemporary times in cultures of the African and Western civilizations as expressed in various humanities and social sciences texts, as well as the arts, iconography, and the media. Considers the ways Africans and afro-descendants in the New World responded to the Western notions of aesthetics and beauty. Authors studied may include Anténor Firmin, Jean Price Mars, Senghor, Damas, Césaire, Cheick Anta Diop, Fanon, Glissant, Chamoiseau, Gyekye Kwame, Socrates, Plato, Jean-Baptiste du Bos,Diderot, Le père André, Baumgarten, Kant, Schopenhauer, Hegel, Hugo. (Same as: FRS 3213, LAS 3213)

Prerequisites: Two of: either FRS 2409 (same as AFRS 2409 and LAS 2209) or FRS 2410 (same as AFRS 2412 and LAS 2210) or FRS 3000 or higher and either FRS 2409 (same as AFRS 2409 and LAS 2209) or FRS 2410 (same as AFRS 2412 and LAS 2210) or FRS 3000 or higher.

AFRS 3220  (c)   African Immigrant Voices in France  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 16.  

Examines the ways both writers and sociologists give voice to the immigrant experience. Focuses on novels as well as sociological studies on African immigration in contemporary France. From a sociological survey that reads like a novel to a novel that reads like an ethnography, we will think through how these disciplines converge and diverge. Introduces students to the methodology behind qualitative interviews. Students conduct fieldwork in Lewiston or Portland and produce podcasts based on in-depth interviews. Students will grapple with positionality as well as the ethics and politics of storytelling. Brings attention to local francophone African immigrant communities in Maine. Readings include selections from Alain Mabanckou, Bessora, Stéphane Béaud, and Abdelmalek Sayad among others. (Same as: FRS 3220)

Prerequisites: Two of: either FRS 2409 (same as AFRS 2409 and LAS 2209) or FRS 2410 (same as AFRS 2412 and LAS 2210) or FRS 3000 or higher and either FRS 2409 (same as AFRS 2409 and LAS 2209) or FRS 2410 (same as AFRS 2412 and LAS 2210) or FRS 3000 or higher.

Previous terms offered: Fall 2018.

AFRS 3228  (c)   Beyond the Postcard: Thinking and Writing the Caribbean  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 16.  

From the first chronicles of Columbus, who believed he had arrived in "The Indies,” to the fantasies of global visitors lured by the comforts of secluded resorts, imagination has been a defining force impacting both the representation and the material lives of Caribbean people. Explores the historical trends that have shaped Caribbean societies, cultural identities, and intellectual history through a panoramic study of twentieth- and twenty-first-century fiction, essays, and films, with a focus on authors from the Hispanic Caribbean and US-Latinas of Caribbean descent. Engaging with the responses from Caribbean intellectuals to the challenges of the distorting mirror, addresses: how writers and artists have responded to the legacy of colonialism, slavery, and the plantation economy; how literature and art have depicted dominant trends in the region’s more recent history such as absolutist regimes, massive migrations, the tourist industry, and even natural disasters; how the Caribbean drawn by artists and intellectuals relates to global representations of the region. Authors include Piñera, Padura, Santos-Febres, Chaviano, and Junot Díaz. Taught in Spanish. (Same as: HISP 3228, LAS 3228)

Prerequisites: Two of: either HISP 2409 (same as LAS 2409) or HISP 2410 (same as LAS 2410) or HISP 3200 or higher and either HISP 2409 (same as LAS 2409) or HISP 2410 (same as LAS 2410) or HISP 3200 or higher.

Previous terms offered: Spring 2018.

AFRS 3230  (c)   Research in Modern United States Metropolitan History  

Every Other Year. Enrollment limit: 16.  

Complete a semester-long research project in United States metropolitan history. During the first weeks, students learn about some major research methodologies historians use when researching and writing history of US metropolises. Addresses how historians use demography, spatial theory, and histories of LGBT communities; financial, political, and cultural institutions; electoral politics; public policies; popular culture; African Americans; immigrants; women; workers; and capitalists to uncover the ways cities and suburbs change over time. Students design a topic, research primary historical sources, locate a historical problem relating to the topic from secondary historical sources, and develop a hypothesis addressing the question. The result is a paper of at least twenty-five pages. Choose any feasible topic on the history of modern US cities and suburbs that takes place during the twentieth century. The coursework involved is advanced, but the greatest challenge is the need for self-direction. 3000-level research course fulfills the capstone requirement for Africana studies and history majors. Note: This course is part of the following field(s) of study: United States. (Same as: HIST 3230)

Previous terms offered: Spring 2016.

AFRS 3260  (c)   African American Literature and Law  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 16.  

This course is organized around a number of key legal cases dealing with the constitution of an African American identity in the United States. Beginning with the case of the Amistad and concluding with the case of Brown v. Board of Education, students are invited to analyze the impact of these cases on works of literature and film.

Prerequisites: AFRS 1101 or AFRS 2000 - 2969.

Previous terms offered: Spring 2019.

AFRS 3365  (c)   Research in African and African Diaspora History  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 16.  

A research seminar focusing on major issues in African and African diaspora history, including: Africa and Atlantic slavery, colonialism in Africa, modern state formation in Africa, and Africa and globalization. Note: This course is part of the following field(s) of study: Africa and Colonial Worlds. (Same as: HIST 3385)

Prerequisites: AFRS 1000 or higher or HIST 1000 or higher.

Previous terms offered: Spring 2017, Spring 2016.

AFRS 3520  (b, IP)   State-Building in Comparative Perspective  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 15.  

States form the foundation of modern politics. Comparative government explores their variation; international relations examine their interaction. States can be instruments of oppression or engines of progress, and recent scholarship has focused on their strength, weakness, and failure. This capstone course explores the processes that produced the early modern state in Europe, then looks at more recent attempts to replicate state development in Latin America, Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. The role of war in state formation and the subject of citizenship receive particular attention. (Same as: GOV 3520)

Previous terms offered: Spring 2018, Spring 2016.

AFRS 3570  (b, IP)   Advanced Seminar in African Politics  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 16.  

The continent of Africa boasts some of the most rapidly growing economies in the world, but the proportion of people living in poverty remains higher than in any other region. Nearly all African states experimented with democratic reform in the last two decades, but many leaders have become adept at using political institutions to entrench their power. Most large-scale civil wars have ended, but violence remains. Explores the economic, political, and security challenges of this continent of contrasts. Topics include poverty and economic growth, the “resource curse,” democratic institutions, civil society, ethnic relations, state failure, foreign assistance, and intervention. (Same as: GOV 3570)

Prerequisites: GOV 2530 (same as AFRS 2530) or AFRS 2530 or HIST 2364 (same as AFRS 2364) or AFRS 2364 (same as HIST 2364) or HIST 2822 (same as AFRS 2822).

Previous terms offered: Spring 2019.

AFRS 3600  (c, ESD, VPA)   Race and Visual Representation in American Art  

Non-Standard Rotation. Enrollment limit: 16.  

Explores the visual construction of race in American art and culture from the colonial period to the late twentieth century. Focuses on two racial "categories"--blackness and whiteness--and how they have shaped American culture. Using college and local museum collections, examines paintings, sculptures, prints, photographs, film, and the spaces in which they have been displayed and viewed. Approach to this material is grounded in art history, but also draws from other disciplines. Artists under study include those who are well known such as Homer and Walker, as well as those who are unknown or have been forgotten. (Same as: ARTH 3600)

Prerequisites: ARTH 1100 or Placement in above ARTH 1100.

Previous terms offered: Fall 2016.